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Residency Summary, June 2014


Ren Adams
Group 3 – Fall, 2014
Peter Rostovsky – Adviser

Residency Summary

My digital hybrid investigation, The Cascade, marked an important pivot point in my work. It grew from a sideline experiment into my core thesis, which examines the transient nature of virtual, social geography and the time-stripped environment of digital elastic-space. The work I brought to the June residency was centered on a deeper investigation of landscape as a permeating condition and I included experimental output formats as part of an interdisciplinary installation.



Congruent responses to The Cascade:

  • Fresh, compelling work. Exciting.
  • Sophisticated color combines my core desert/lotus palette with video blue (an improvement over the video-dominant palette of last semester’s Cascade stills). Moments of broken color are also effective.
  • Layering temporally allows the viewer to metaphorically go back in time as they excavate layers. Fluidity is critical.
  • The work collapses the essence of site into a single moment. Directional entanglements create a philosophical space where the past erupts into the present. At times it is even less about “site” than superseded historical memory. What does it mean to reactivate the past as specter, enabling a platform for it in the present?
  • There is a sense of time-relativity, ambiguous perspective, contingent and indistinct intervals—all with unreliable physicality.
  • The work is most novel when it’s difficult to disentangle.
  • Nothing is ever fully resolved. There is no single, grounded moment—the instability, ambiguity and contingency speak to the unreliability of memory, geology, Hollywood fabrication and television. It carries a sense of the uncanny.
  • The density of information leads to a kind of claustrophobia, which at times disallows the sense of space, becoming a kind of passive consumption (as in television).
  • Sense of memory, recollection. Compelling layers make it a challenge to separate memory from lived experience; a sense of obscuring/revealing occurs.
  • Horizontal display recalls storyboarding or linear narrative, without actually providing closure. It encourages flow, yet the story remains elusive, or denied.
  • Characters are vital. They allow a point of entry and disrupt the ambiguous space.
  • There is an intriguing sense of “shimmer” and dimensionality that references lenticular images—which may warrant additional investigation.
  • Shifting horizon provides spatial ambiguity and layers weave in and out of a painterly mode. This diversity in mark-making works well.
  • Pieces deal with the space between objective and subjective ideas of landscape, operating in a middle-ground that provides tension. This engagement with interstitial space is painterly, oddly filmic. It also occupies a liminal space between abstraction and representation.
  • It references the strange reality we’re in, where TV informs our memory of real places and social interactions. It manipulates the scripted, the cultural and the real.
  • Like beginning of a movie—suggestive, not narrative explicit. Work is also like growing up on a movie set, offers discussion of history and the language of illusion in television.
  • Stills exist over time, not physical space, though they’re rooted in place. Lots of formal dynamism, interesting integration of mark and background. Representation emerges from the painterly moments.
  • Panoramic horizons refer to cinema, rectangles to television.
  • Both characters and landscape behave as ephemeral, ghostly, even spectral intrusions—spirits from our own mind (personal or cultural) that inform how we understand landscape, place and time.
  • The compartment view (hurtling across the desert in a vehicle) is of specific temporal and logistical importance to the work, as well as California culture.
  • Images are sites of activity and archaeology. Some viewers see horizontal cross-sections, others felt the layers provide peel-back digs.
  • Tony Apesos pointed out that over time, landscapes became emptied of people. 16th century landscapes, on the other hand, were crowded with characters, events and intersections of activity. I should further investigate (and understand) my desire to repopulate the land.

 Specific responses to the video/animations

Engaging and painterly. Backlighting enhances digital imagery.

Video performs differently at each projected scale, which can be advantageous.

Add action clips, or individually animated objects in the video feeds.



Split responses (video):

  • Some felt the videos were too much like slideshows or screensavers. Others actually preferred the slideshow-like fade that references TV cross-fades.
  • Viewers either preferred the projections to the digital stills, or preferred the stills to the projections.
  • Half of the viewers responded more to the TV-format videos, which directly references the intimacy of television. Others responded favorably to the large, full-wall or screen projection, suggesting it offered a more immersive experience, reinforcing landscape. The least compelling format was the in-between size (30-60”), though some faculty felt the in-betweeners were fine as part of a multi-channel installation, choreographed to deliver a guided experience.

Micro and Macro Reads

My critique with Matthew Meyer is an excellent example of the kind of relational (micro/macro) reading I intended for The Cascade: the play between public and private memory. Matthew knew the California landscape instantly, relating through a personal response rooted in his original experience with the environment: television. His associations with the desert were mediated through the fabricated specter of popular culture—even though he grew up on another coast and had no physical connection to the site. A number of faculty critiques also highlighted this relationship, ranging from activated nostalgia to a broader understanding of the Hollywood-ization of the West.  Pivotal points along this investigative angle include:

  • Fantasy-Hollywood happened in real space.
  • Landscape functions as a site of cultural and geologic relationships and exchanges.
  • The dialogue between the real, the fantastical and the geologic conflates place with time.
  • The landscape indexes time and experience. In fact, landscape is conflated with time.
  • Landscape is a site of occurrence. A location for micro and macro relationships, personal and cultural overlap. As a site, landscape becomes an active platform of exchange.

Specific Suggestions for The Cascade:

  • The form The Cascade eventually takes is centered on the construction of an interdisciplinary project, which articulates (and mutates) the concept across varied mediums.  Multiple mediums open dialogue with transitional spaces, allowing the viewer to recognize each medium’s ability to articulate different aspects of the total concept.[2]
  • Formatting suggestions:

o   Print on large paper to test the effect of scale on the viewer’s ability to enter ambiguous space.

o   Do the prints need to be large, or are they best served as a string of smaller moments?

o   Avoid traditional photo papers (concept better served on matte paper).

o   Try displaying video on cathode TVs.

o   Try videos or stills in digital photo frames.

    • Consider ways to dimensionalize the television experience. Collapse viewing into geometric interludes. This locates references specifically in the text.
  • Try less modest installations.
  • Use of text intriguing—references the larger framework of the collaborative, appropriated experience. It questions/overturns the nature of authorship.
  • SOUND. It came up in nearly every critique. I need to work with sound. Whether I include videos in the final project or not, most felt I should investigate soundscapes and sound mixes, sampling everything from music to ambient background noise as a counterpoint to the stills. The sound can be integrated with the animations, or used as a separate comment.
  • Develop a clear iconographic system.
  • Stay at a critical distance from the exactness of film. The work’s unreliability, denial of resolution and references to television are richer than the explicitly cinematic.
  • What will the final forms be? Painting, digital and video?
  • Use referentiality to my advantage. Why not embrace Hollywood more directly? Specificity is okay.
  • Will more negative space/void improve some pieces?
  • Horizons may be more effective if they’re really long.
  • Try inserting blanks into the video projections, or into the longer, more encompassing still installations. These breaks reference TV formatting (commercial breaks, transitions).
  • Play with the establishing shots used in television to indicate location, think more cinematically.
  • Give critical consideration to the migration of work between painting and digital. What happens in this transitional state? Do mediums become subordinate to each other, or to concept?
  • I need several paintings to form a counterpoint to the digital work.
  • Try looping animations of un-manipulated screen caps.
  • Generate an entire video with only stills.
  • Consider the ever-expansive mythology of the west as a cultural and political construct. How are these considerations playing out in the work? The west behaves as a blank physical and cultural canvas, cut through by human intervention.
  • Curate, choreograph and activate different spaces and marks, in video and stills.
  • Tony Apesos suggested I go either more minimal or intensely baroque—avoid the in-between (a few responses indicated the work was too dense and I should consider simplification).


Out of step critiques and comments:

One faculty member felt the photographic stills were not working at all (he called them “overworked” and “flat,” denying narrative and resolution.[3] This response was at odds with most, who liked the difficulty resolving, or disentangling, individual moments. I asked if printing the digital images at a larger scale would solve some of his issues—and he indicated that larger scale and different paper would improve his response. He preferred the painting and wanted to see a direct narrative, with simplified images. One other faculty member also pushed me toward narrative, though I am not interested in explicit storytelling.

Direction of Future Work:

I plan to focus on further investigation of the Cascade, both in terms of conceptual excavation and physical manipulation, considering new micro and macro layers of meaning and interaction. I will be refining my varied output techniques, in order to solidify a multi-part, interdisciplinary project. I expect to produce 2-3 additional paintings, new video work and new methods of developing the digital stills on paper.

Artist suggestions included:

Albrecht Altdorfer, Diana Thater, Doug Aitken, Jack Goldstein, Jennifer Steinkamp, Joachim Patinier, Pieter Bruegel the Elder, TJ Wilcox and 16th century panoramic landscapes. As always, I will continue researching influential artists from previous semesters.

Suggested readings/videos:

Readings that were suggested during the residency:

Appleton, Jay. The Experience of Landscape.

Barthes, Roland. “The Third Meaning.” Image-Music-Text.

Benjamin, Walter. “Theses on the Philosophy of History.” Illuminations.

Casey, Edward. Representing Place: Landscape Painting and Maps.

Clark, Kenneth. Landscape into Art.

DeLue, Rachel Z. Landscape Theory (the Art Seminar).

Malpas, Jeff. Place and Experience: A Philosophical Topography.

Malpas, Jeff. The Place of Landscape: Concepts, Contexts, Studies.

Mitchell, W.J.T. Landscape and Power.

Schama, Simon. Landscape and Memory.

Since I’ve been working with digital projection, I also received a smattering of video recommendations from faculty including: Bladerunner – The Aquarelle Edition, Michael Snow – Wavelength (1967), Chris Marker – La Jetée (1962), The Birds (1963), Psycho (1960) and Richard Altman’s Short Cuts (1993).


[1] I had group critiques with Ben Sloat, Stewart Steck and Andrew Yang, and one-one-one critiques with Lynne Cooke, Peter Rostovsky, Tony Apesos, Judith Barry, Matthew Meyer, Britt Snyder and Jonathan Macagba. Members in my like-media critique group were: Wendy Wolfe Fine, Sean Quirk, Jesse Stansfield and Anna Spence. My large-scale videos also garnered feedback during the time-based screenings from a variety of students, including Mark Teiwes, Regan Rosburg, Susan Donatucci-Hopp and Ann Olsen.

[2] This is becoming rooted in the read-only, write-only and read-write culture articulated in Oliver Wasow’s Digital  Visual Culture in the Age of Social Media lecture.

[3] It should be noted that the work intentionally attempts a denial of clean resolution and elusive narrative.

IMG_3087 IMG_3053 IMG_3046




Residency Summary, Spring ’14



Residency Summary, Spring 2014

Ren Adams
Group 2 – Spring, 2014 Residency Summary
Lynne Cooke – Adviser


I began the program with a body of work which was primarily concerned with exploring the nature of emergence—depicting the way being materializes from non-being, matter from the void of non-matter. It synthesized ideas found in Eastern philosophy, archaeology and physics, uniting elements with formal practice in a time-neutral space; ambiguous gravity and perspective frozen on paper.

Fall, 2013 served as a transition point, allowing me to address information as matter, to explore the interconnectivity of networks (social, spatial) and to integrate the virtual space where it all takes shape. There was more to my production than continued dialogue with paper, however. I produced what seemed two loosely connected bodies of work: a series of mixed-media prints and a digital project that began as a daily exercise.[1] The digital series, dubbed The Cascade, marked an important breakthrough, becoming an investigation into the transient nature of virtual, social geography and the deep, time-stripped space of digital data. It was dangerous territory—one involving photography, digital manipulation, appropriation and recombination, later integrating printmaking into the archive. By semester’s end, my obsessive interest offered entry into a new phase of work and I brought representations of both bodies of work to the residency to gauge critical response to The Cascade as a potential thesis direction.


Congruent responses to the prints included:

  • The mark-making and quality of the prints were polished, precious and well-executed, but viewers found The Cascade more compelling as a body of work. Marks were referred to as “powerful,” “engaging,” “scientific.”
  • Effective delivery of concept.
  • Color palette mature, compelling and reminiscent of California and New Mexico deserts.
  • Prints were seen as a process of excavation for both viewer and artist.
  • Avoid flat, white paper as background—“created” negative space and off-white paper better received.
  • Consider what other contexts these sets of marks can reside in (i.e., Cascade).
  • There is a sense of contingency: molecules and atoms reconfigure to take on different forms, with a pervading substructure. Ambiguous gravity throughout.
  • Consider suspending rice paper in front of support.
  • Abstraction opens the work so you can enter, but have I gotten too comfortable with it?

Congruent responses to The Cascade included:

  • Fresh, compelling work.
  • Color palette fascinating—reminiscent of my core palette and the digital, transmitted nature of video. How do the colors relate to the digital world? The Cascade seems saturated, with a CMYK feel that’s intriguing—making some stills appear “watercolor-y.” Interesting play between natural palette and TV palette.
  • There is a sense of time-relativity, ambiguous perspective, contingent and ambiguous time.
  • Consider idea that the rest of the world sees the Los Angeles area landscape as a branded, packaged form of “America.” The work seems to be engaging this weird, 1960s-1980s cultural and commercial pool. Think of the ways Los Angeles was used as a stand-in for other parts of the world (Cuba, Russia, etc.) and how staging affects the nature of understanding geographic space-place.
  • No sense of nostalgia, sentimentality or ironic/sarcastic use of appropriated images (such a relief!—these were not intended to be part of the work).
  • Sense of memory, recollection. Compelling layers make it a challenge to separate memory, a sense of obscuring/revealing occurs.
  • Horizontal display format recalls storyboarding or linear narrative, without actually providing narrative. It encourages the eye to move, provides flow and movement. Strong sense of contingency and circular time.
  • Information as units of matter ß—àAtoms forming particular matter.
  • Shifting horizon provides ambiguity in physical space.
  • The work deals with the space between objective and subjective ideas of landscape, operating in a middle-ground that provides tension.
  • Varied layers and surfaces refer to different visual languages—complicating work in a good way.
  • References the strange reality we’re in, where TV informs our memory of real places and social interactions.
  • Individual stills are less “precious” than the prints, making this project suitable for radical experimentation.
  • Like beginning of a movie—suggestive, not narrative explicit. Work is also like growing up on a movie set, offers discussion of history and the language of illusion in cinema
  • Stills exist over time, not physical space, though they’re rooted in place. Lots of formal dynamism, interesting integration of mark and background. Representation emerges from the painterly moments.
  • References to electronic space

Specific Suggestions for The Cascade:

  • The form, or output, The Cascade could eventually take was of primary interest and often became a focal point for critiques. Suggested output formats/experiments included:
    • Print the digital works on large paper and work back on top of them (drawing, printmaking, painting, image transfer, collage).
    • Try blowing them up and outputting on large sheets.
    • Output the digital images on transparencies and suspend. Output Photoshop layers as individual transparencies and suspend with space between layers.
    • Projections, video, digital video, fade-in projection slideshow. Consider how video fades might provide sense of elusiveness.
    • Output on suspended paper.
    • Make the final output same as the laser printed documentation—smaller format, print smaller.
  • Display pieces using cathode TVs.
  • Consider ways to disrupt the print surface and how these disruptions communicate.
  • Use referentiality to your advantage. Does content need to be more overt?
  • Will more negative space/void improve some pieces?
  • Explore more stills taken out of motion, re-activate the sense of motion with line drawings (as in some of them). The line drawings imply re-animation and sequencing.
  • Consider how time relates to the work, to its layers and output.
  • Why can’t both digital and traditional co-exist? Play with that.
  • Consider what happens when electronic color goes up against natural color.
  • Try bringing some of the ritual engagement with print processes to the digital work, to see what happens: the presence of the “happy accident” in printmaking, manual meets digital. Some of the overlays recall this visual relationship.
  • Do a side investigation into the value of print and what happens in printmaking that differs from digital. Where does print and digital converge? What happens when I take form derived in the printmaking moment, abstract it into the digital world, then bring it back to print?
  • Some viewers liked stills that were less about the photo capture and more about the merging of hand and electronic considerations. Others preferred the opposite. In this context, intricately rendered moments might communicate more subtext when contrasted to raw digital material. Consider ways these activities interact.
  • Play with the establishing shots used in television to indicate location, think more cinematically (cutting, editing, motion).
  • One faculty member disliked the dominance of purple in some Cascade pieces, encouraging me to balance the natural and digital personalities of color.
  • Take marks developed in the prints and apply them to The Cascade.


Out of step critique:
I had a one-on-one faculty critique that was out of step with the rest of the critical responses.[2] She was not particularly interested in The Cascade, feeling it too unfinished to discuss, though she did suggest using chine collé to add Cascade images to thicker paper. She found the prints more “convincing,” though felt most were unresolved. She suggested that if I was going the digital direction that I not abandon printmaking entirely. Her response to the work echoed my mentor’s criticism (he was also disinterested in the Cascade), which was rooted in a more traditional sensibility, but out of step with all other critiques and discussions.


From The Cascade

Direction of Future Work:

I plan to focus on further investigation of the Cascade, both in terms of conceptual excavation and physical manipulation, considering new micro and macro layers of meaning and interaction. Experimentation across varied output techniques is pivotal as I develop material into a proto-thesis project.


I received a variety of artist recommendations this semester, including: David Salle, Douglas Gordon, Elizabeth Neel, Fiona Rae, James Rosenquist, Matthew Brandt, Peter Fischli and David Weiss, Sigmar Polke, Robert Rauschenberg, Jered Sprecher, Xu Bing and Wade Guyton. I will also continue researching my artist list from Fall.

Suggested readings/videos:

I did not receive many reading recommendations, possibly because I already had a large number of texts on my Spring list (sourced in Fall). I am carrying the larger list forward and adding the following titles:

  • Moonwalking with Einstein – J. Foer
  • What the Bleep do we Know? (video)
  • Works by Alain Robbe-Grillet
  • Six Stories from the End of Representation: Images in Painting, Photography, Astronomy, Microscopy, Particle Physics, and Quantum Mechanics, 1980-2000. J. Elkins.
  • Appropriation (Whitechapel: Documents of Contemporary Art), D. Evans.




[1] John Kramer suggested the daily exercise, encouraging me to work outside my familiar mediums to prevent “safe” stagnation. I rooted this daily ritual in an earlier curatorial project called The Trace, completed for Oliver Wasow’s “Digital Visual Culture in the Age of Social Media” elective seminar. For The Trace, I scoured the web for pre-existing, found snippets of Los Angeles County present in television screen caps. I curated a virtual exhibition of these un-altered landscapes.

[2] I had group critiques with Matt Keegan, Judith Barry, Deb Todd Wheeler and Pamela Drix. I had one-on-one critiques with Lynne Cooke, Deb Todd Wheeler, Deborah Davidson, Oliver Wasow, Mara Emma and Assya Makawi, with one spontaneous mini crit  with Tony Apesos.

Residency Summary 1 – Fall, 2013 Semester


Ren Adams
Group 1 – Residency Summary – Fall, 2013

My most recent body of work, The Archaeology of Being (2012-13), is primarily concerned with exploring the nature of emergence—depicting the way being materializes from non-being, matter from the void of non-matter. It synthesizes ideas found in Eastern philosophy, physics and art history and unites them with individual practice, generating a time-neutral space; a seemingly non-contextual moment. Layered images are meant to be explored like an archaeological dig, the viewer brushing away details to reveal information. The work exists in a sort of “subspace” generated in part by recent scientific discoveries, but without direct comment on 21st century concerns. I entered the Fall, 2013 residency at a transition point, knowing future work would build upon this conceptual base, but that it was turning toward a conversation with the “information age” itself.  Dialogue from the residency has generated a trajectory for future work, joining existing ideas with digital culture, data, language and spatial relationships.

Prior to the residency, I had been examining ways to evolve the work so that it addressed contemporary currents, but the residency itself offered the breakthroughs needed to begin. I was already interested in digital culture, visual media and the information cascade, finding relationships between the flow of data and its counterparts in physics and philosophy (as Fritjof Capra did in The Web of Life—information and virtual systems uncannily reflect biological and atomic patterns).  I had noticed that after installing Picasa, the program dumped all of the images I’d collected since the early 90s into a single, compacted database. An 1885 photo of my great grandparents suddenly cohabitated with 90s eBay banner ads, a candid shot of The Kinks and a snap of lunch. It was as if, in this spatial moment, all time, physicality and perspective collapsed into a kind of visual remix. Likewise, a Google search strips the moment of location and time, collapsing all data into a single space. The viewer again becomes an archaeologist, finding and remixing reference points and visual data, with access to all points on earth, all times, locations and moments in a single click, a single database query. In this digital space, time exhibits a new kind of relativity—a kind of “rewrite” culture expounded upon in Oliver Wasow’s elective seminar: Visual Culture in the Age of Social Media. The seminar addressed some of these ideas and provided excellent resources and stimulating discussion related to digital communication. It also opened dialogue about the nature of the “visual remix” itself, relating ideas of art, commodity, information and digital social interaction to the unstoppable cascade of data married to daily life. Of particular interest was the notion of the inherently mutative character of information as it exists in the digital flow—how a series of numbers come together to generate form that can then be modified, adapted or remixed by users into new material, recalling oral storytelling of the past. Activity itself becomes vaporous, dematerialized and rematerialized in an instant, in that collapsed space. Our daily interactions get plugged into what Lawrence Lesley calls a “Celestial Jukebox,” with access to chosen culture anytime, anywhere. I was understandably excited by the seminar, the artists presented and the potentiality of future work that could synthesize these considerations. Our online curated exhibition project was a nice finishing touch, itself leading into my daily practice project, The Cascade.

In addition to the brain-food seminar, critiques and group discussions were mightily beneficial. Overall, faculty and students had positive, often echoing responses to my work. The consensus felt I was effectively communicating the concept, with a few deviations based on viewer perception. I made a list of overlapping impressions like: weightlessness, ambiguous gravity, collapse, generation, excavation, architectural decay, judicious negative space, ambiguous orientation, suspense of time, analytical process made manifest, mysterious medium, accretion and dissolution, cataclysm, alchemy, language, the space between and calligraphic moments. The repetition of these terms cemented the impact certain elements had on varied viewers. Other observations included: a sense of the paranormal, the importance of text and title in orienting the work, explosiveness, micro and macro environments, nature and/or architecture, relation to scientific drawings, scaffolding, dystopia, even science fiction and phenomenology. The color palette received positive support, as did the use of paper and layers.

I also received excellent, motivating suggestions for future work. Jan Avgikos encouraged attempts to re-invent the spiritual itself, to consider it in relation to further studies in consciousness. John Kramer encouraged more reflection and a balance of continuation with derivation, to make sure the work changes over time, while also recommending that I invent a language that has the life of calligraphy within it. Fia Backstrom was pleased with the current palette, but wondered what might happen if I tried radically different palettes—to experiment with how color affects the communication of concept. She was also eager to see even more involvement in process and attempts to isolate moments within a piece, expanding them into new investigations. Laurel Sparks wondered what would happen if the floating shapes merged and morphed , encouraging me to take “field notes,” to stir the pot and observe time while continuing the idea of the diagram, the glyph, language and line. She recommended creating a vehicle to produce amalgam, inventing a language, distilling all manner of pictography and icon into an alchemical pot—to become a mad scientist of vocabulary and symbols, which in turn reminded me of Oliver Wasow’s impression of the pieces as an “alchemy of images.” Both faculty and students recommended experimenting with the physicality of the paper, taking a more three-dimensional approach in order to convey the idea of matter vs. non-matter more directly.  Several also encouraged the idea of moving parts, suspended display and rotation. Almost every faculty critique encouraged the expansion of language, iconographic or textual, exploring ways to make language central, to distill a new language, or to morph calligraphic marks into new spaces. Linguistic information and the relay of symbolic marks are already important to my process, but this invites even greater exploration. I’m thrilled by Laurel’s suggestion that language and pictograph can embrace everything from the Egyptian Book of the Dead to phone app icons and logos.

My 11th hour, Sunday critique with Oliver Wasow was peppered with epiphany moments, pages of notes mutating into info graphics, which evolved into research. Understandably spring-boarding off the elective seminar, our discussion generated rousing new paths, including ways of relating the purposeful collapse of physical space, perspective and time in Chinese painting to the digital collapse of deep, digital space. Combining an acknowledgement of my existing influences, Oliver encouraged a push into even wider-reaching aspects of digital culture, including literal digital methods and research into systems data, flow, fragmentation, data and process and the play of surface. Similarly, my Sunday meeting with Laurel Sparks vibrated with possibility and we discussed continued use of the direct and indirect mark along with intense development of a more complex vocabulary of signs and marks.

While several faculty members enjoyed the idea that my imagery walks a thin line between abstraction and representation, Stuart Steck disagreed, indicating he disliked the occupation of a liminal, in-between space and encouraged me to work in either representation or straight abstraction in the future (he leaned toward an illustrative approach).  He felt that I need to construct the viewer’s understanding more directly with thematized work. He also did not feel the work was communicating my concept effectively, though he found the analytical philosophy interesting—but he, like the others, encouraged further investigation of communication systems.

Artist recommendations often overlapped, reinforcing the group’s overall reaction to my work and emphasizing commonalities. Julie Mehretu, Amy Sillman and Cy Twombly were three such artists whose names frequently came up in relation to mapping, complimentary forms and resonation (Cy Twombly was already in my stable, but Mehretu and Sillman were exciting additions). I was also encouraged to study the works of Charles Burchfeld, Cao Guo Qiang, Elliot Porter, Hans Hoffman, Charline Von Heyl, Sarah Sze, Christopher Wall, Arshile Gorky, Edward Tufte, Joanne Greenbaum, Jean-Michel Basquiat and Emma Kunz. Readings that were recommended included works by Donna Haraway, Jane Goodall, James Gleick, Edward Tufte, Arshile Gorky, Andrew Darley and others as well as research into consciousness, mapping, resonation, communication systems and artists who play with the unconscious.